A form of cancer that involves cells from the lining of the walls of many different organs of the body. Breast cancer is a type of adenocarcinoma.
Adjuvant induced arthritis
Arthritis induced by an agent that stimulates the immune response 
An antibiotic obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius , used as an anticancer drug. 
Alkaline phosphatase
An enzyme that catalyses the cleavage of inorganic phosphate non-specifically from a wide variety of phosphate esters and having a high (greater than 8) pH optimum. Found in bacteria, fungi and animals but not in higher plants. 
An agent that alleviates pain without causing loss of consciousness. 
An agent that counteracts inflammation and fever. 
The process of vascularisation of a tissue involving the development of new capillary blood vessels. 
Antibody (IgG)
An immunoglobulin G molecule that has a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which it interacts only with the antigen that induced its synthesis in plasma cells or with antigen closely related to it. 
Inhibiting or preventing the development of neoplasms (new abnormal growth of tissue), checking the maturation and proliferation of malignant cells. 
counteracting a process of proliferation viz, the reproduction or multiplication of similar forms, especially of cells and morbid cysts.
Programmed cell death as signalled by the nuclei in normally functioning human and animal cells when age or state of cell health and condition dictates. This is often characterized by cleavage of the DNA into fragments.
Arachidonic acid
An essential dietary component for mammals. The free acid is the precursor for biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid derivatives including leucotrienes and is thus of great biological significance in inflammation.
Aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT)
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from aspartic acid. High serum levels indicate oxidative damage.
Aspartate transaminase
Enzyme that catalyses the metabolic reaction: aspartate + ketoglutarate = oxaloacetate + glutamate. High serum levels indicate oxidative damage.
The progressive narrowing and hardening of the arteries over time. This is known to occur to some degree with aging, but other risk factors such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure that accelerate this process have been identified.

An allergic reaction with strong family tendencies.

Condition in which an individual's immune system starts reacting against his or her own tissues, causing diseases such as lupus.

A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.
Polycyclic aromatic compound. Potent mutagen and carcinogen.
The degree to which a drug or nutrient becomes available to the target tissue after administration.
Biomarker enzyme
A specific enzyme in the body which has a particular molecular feature that makes it useful for measuring the progress of disease or the effects of treatment.
A compound which protects living cells from the effects of biological oxidation and environmental toxins by quenching existing free radicals as well as inhibiting their propagation. 
The series of chemical alterations of a compound (for example, a drug or nutrient) which occur within the body, as by enzymatic activity. 
An antibiotic which came from the bacteria Streptomyces verticellus and is used to treat a variety of cancers, including Hodgkin's disease. 
The generation of cancer from normal cells, correctly the formation of a carcinoma from epithelial cells, but often used synonymously with transformation, tumorigenesis. 
Carrageenan edema test
Carrageenan, a cell wall polysaccharide induces an inflammatory lesion when injected into experimental animals (probably activates complement). 
Enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide. 
Induction of opacity, partial or complete, of one or both eyes, on or in the lens or capsule, especially an opacity impairing vision or causing blindness. 
Cell differentiation
Progresive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function which leads to the formation of specialized cells. 
Chelating agents
Organic compounds that form two or more coordination bonds with a central metal ion. Some biological systems form metal chelates, e.g., the iron-binding porphyrin group of haemoglobin and the magnesium-binding chlorophyll of plants. they are used chemically to remove ions from solutions, medicinally against microorganisms, to treat metal poisoning, and in chemotherapy protocols. 
Cytokines that are chemotactic for leucocytes. The first member of the family was IL-8 interleukin-8 but subsequently many other members have been identified. 
The use of natural or laboratory-made substances to prevent cancer. 
A response of motile cells or organisms in which the direction of movement is affected by the gradient of a diffusible substance.
Collagen The protein substance of the white fibres (collagenous fibres) of skin, tendon, bone, cartilage and all other connective tissue, composed of molecules of tropocollagen, it is converted into gelatin by boiling.
Proteolytic enzyme capable of breaking native collagen. once the initial cleavage is made, less specific proteases will complete the degradation.
Deep pit that protrudes down into the connective tissue surrounding the small intestine.

The epithelium at the base of the crypt is the site of stem cell proliferation and the differentiated cells move upwards and are shed 3-5 days later at the tips of the villi.

Enzyme complex present in most tissues that produces various prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid, inhibited by aspirin like drugs, probably accounting for their anti-inflammatory effects.
Cyclosporine A
A cyclic undecapeptide which is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. 
Cytochrome 4501A1/1A2
Important enzymes of the electron transport chain vital to metabolic processes. The enzymes specified here are capable of activating procarcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into mutagenic compounds. 
Small proteins or biological factors (in the range of 5-20 kD) that are released by cells and have specific effects on cell-cell interaction, communication and behaviour of other cells. 
An agent that suppresses cell growth and multiplication. 
Chemicals that are directly toxic to cells, preventing their reproduction or growth.

Cytotoxic agents can, as a side effect, damage healthy, noncancerous tissues or organs which have a high proportion of actively dividing cells, for example, bone marrow, hair follicles. These side effects limit the amount and frequency of drug administration.

1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride
A DNA alkylating agent (introduce alkyl radicals into DNA) that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumours in experimental animals.
A state in which erythrocytes have shrunk so that their surface is spiky.
Serine protease that will digest elastin and collagen
Characteristic of a molecule or group that does not have enough electrons and will tend to take them from a molecule or group with an excess of elecrons (nucleophile).
Enzyme induction
An increase in enzyme secretion in response to an environmental signal.
A red blood cell
17-Beta Estradiol
A hormone synthesized mainly in the ovary, but also in the placenta, testis and possibly adrenal cortex. A potent estrogen.
A generic term for estrus producing steroid compounds, the female sex hormones.
Resident cell of connective tissue, mesodermally derived, that secretes fibrillar procollagen, fibronectin and collagenase. 
Glycoprotein of high molecular weight (2 chains each of 250 kD linked by disulphide bonds) that occurs in insoluble form in extracellular matrix of animal tissues. 
Free radical
A chemically active atom or molecular fragment containing a chemical charge due to an excess or deficient number of electrons. Radicals seek to receive or release electrons in order to achieve a more stable configuration, a process that can damage the large molecules within cells. 
Carotenoid pigment of certain brown algae (Phaeophyta) and bacteria: absorbs at 500-580 nm.
Gammaglutamyl transpeptidase
An enzyme contained in the liver that plays a role in metabolism. Elevated above normal levels in hepatitis.
Glutathione peroxidase
A detoxifying enzyme that eliminates hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. 
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic radicals as well as epoxides and arene oxides to glutathione. 
The uncontrolled, non-enzymatic reaction of sugars with proteins. Induces damage to vital proteins in diabetics and is responsible for many of the secondary complications of the disease. 
Proteins with covalently attached sugar units 
The process of formation of grainlike prominences on wounds or ulcers which hastens the process of healing. 
Leucocyte with conspicuous cytoplasmic granules
GSH (glutathione)
The tripeptide _ glutamylcysteinylglycine which is is also important as a co factor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, in the uptake of amino acids and participates in leucotriene synthesis.
HeLa cells
The first continuously cultured human malignant cell line, derived from the cervical carcinoma of henrietta lacks (one of several pseudonyms).
Generation of liver tumors
Destructive to the liver.
HL-60 cells
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with acute promyelocytic leukaemia. 
Enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid, found in lysosomes 
A general term for elevated concentrations of any or all of the lipids in the plasma, such as cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins
Interleukin-8, a cytokine that activates neutrophils and attracts neutrophils and T-lymphocytes.
Any chemotherapeutic agent which also has the effect of suppressing the immune system. Most often these agents will reduce the absolute number of white blood cells in the bloodstream.
Pertaining to or situated between parts or in the interspaces of a tissue.
Ischemia-reperfusion injury
Injury occurring during the restoration of blood flow to a tissue under low oxygen state
One of various structurally related forms of an enzyme, each having the same mechanism but with differing chemical, physical, or immunologically characteristics.
A flavonoid compound in which the benzenoid B ring is in the 3-position of the basic flavone structure shown here

Example: genistein, daidzein

Synthetic adrenergic agonist, causes peripheral vasodilation, bronchodilation and increased cardiac output.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin
LD 50
The amount, or dosage, of a substance necessary to cause death of 50% of the experimental animals.
Cells that help the body fight infections and other diseases (white blood cells)
Epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa associated with Epstein-barr virus and found almost exclusively in persons with HIV infection
Leukotriene B4
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism) 
Leukotriene C4
The conjugation product of leukotriene a4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitised lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some vascular smooth muscle. 
Lineweaver-Burk plot
A plot of 1/v against 1/s for an enzyme catalysed reaction, where v is the initial rate and s the Substrate concentration. From the equation: 1/v = 1/Vmax(1+Km/S) the parameters Vmax and Km can be determined. 
Linoleic acid
An essential fatty acid (9, 12, octadecadienoic acid), occurs as a glyceride component in many fats and oils. 
Lipid peroxidation
peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.  
Having an affinity for fat, pertaining to or characterised by lipophilia. 
Enzyme that catalyses the oxidative conversion of arachidonic acid to the hydroxyeicosenoic acid (HETE) structure in the synthesis of leukotrienes.
Logarithmic growth phase
The steepest slope of the growth curve of a culture--the phase of vigorous growth during which cell number doubles every 20-30 minutes. 
A yellow carotenoid present in egg yolk and other biological materials, valued as an antioxidant 
A linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon carotenoid which is the major red pigment in some fruit, including tomatoes. 
The lymphoblast usually develops by enlargement of a lymphocyte
Malignant tumors of lymphoblasts derived from B lymphocytes. Most commonly affects children in tropical Africa: both Epstein Barr virus and immunosuppression due tomalarial infection are involved. 
An acute or chronic disease of unknown cause in humans and other warm blooded animals that involves the blood forming organs, is characterised by an abnormal increase in the number of leucocytes in the tissues of the body with or without a corresponding increase of those in the circulating blood and is classified according of the type leucocyte most prominently involved. 
Lysosomal enzymes
A range of degradative enzymes, most of which operate best at acid pH. The best known marker enzymes are acid phosphatase and glucuronidase, but many others are known.
Biological term relating to large molecules including, proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates, but probably not phospholipids. 
Granular, mononuclear phagocytes in the alveoli of the lungs, that ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immuno-competent cells. 
Any substance produced by metabolism or by a metabolic process 
Capacity to induce genetic mutation 
Myocardial infarction
A term used to describe irreversible injury to heart muscle, heart attack 
Histological term for fibroblast like cells that contain substantial arrays of muscle proteins arranged in such a way as to produce contractile forces. They occur in granulation tissue (formed during wound healing) and in certain forms of arterial thickening 
The sum of the morphological changes indicative of cell death and caused by the progressive degradative action of enzymes, it may affect groups of cells or part of a structure or an organ. 
Kidney disease
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in lymphoid cells. In B-lymphocytes nf-kappa b binds to the immunoglobulin kappa light chain enhancer and in T-lymphocytes it has been shown to bind to the enhancers in virally infected cells including HIV.
Mutated and/or overexpressed version of a normal gene of animal cells (the proto-oncogene) that in a dominant fashion can release the cell from normal restraints on growth and thus alone or in concert with other changes, convert a cell into a tumor cell. 
Ornithine decarboxylase
Enzyme that converts ornithine to putrescine (dibasic amine) by decarboxylation. It is a rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the polyamines spermidime and spermine that regulate DNA synthesis. 
Oxidative stress
A highly oxidized environment within cells that is thought to promote degenerative changes because the cells are forced into a highly activated state due to loss of control of their regulatory systems.
Pertaining to the smooth serous membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen. 
The action of drugs in the body over a period of time, including the processes of absorption, distribution, localisation in tissues, biotransformation and excretion. 
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
The reproduction or multiplication of similar forms, especially of cells and morbid cysts.
Cell of the bone marrow that derive from myeloblasts and will give rise to myelocytes, precursors of myeloid cells and neutrophil granulocytes.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Protein kinase C
An enzyme that phosphorylates proteins on serine or threonine residues in the presence of physiological concentrations of calcium and membrane phospholipids.
Commonly thought or deemed; supposed
flavonoid pigment found in many plants
Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT)
An enzyme that is found primarily in the liver. It is released into the bloodstream as the result of liver damage. Also called the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT).
Methyl nitroso urea with a 2 substituted glucose, used as an antibiotic and also to induce a form of diabetes in experimental animals.
Term used interchangeably for the superoxide anion or the weak acid HO2(.).A very active oxygen species, it can cause substantial damage and may be responsible for the inactivation of plasma antiproteases that contributes to the pathogenesis of emphysema.
Acting together, enhancing the effect of another force or agent.
T lymphocytes
lymphoid cells concerned with cell-mediated immunity. They originate from lymphoid stem cells that migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus and differentiate under the influence of the thymic hormones.
Tat-mediated transactivation
Stimulation of transcription by a transcription factor binding to DNA and activating adjacent proteins mediated by specific transactivating (Tat) proteins.
Thiobarbituric acid test
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Lymphocyte within the thymus, term usually applied to an immature lymphocyte.
Transforming growth factor-beta
Factor synthesised in a wide variety of tissues including platelets, placenta, and both normal and transformed cell lines. It acts synergistically with tgf-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation Tgf-beta also has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. There are at least three forms of tgf-beta: tgf-beta1, tgf-beta2, and tgf-beta1.2.
Transmitted from the lactating mother to the infant
Transcription factor
Protein required for recognition by RNA polymerases of specific stimulatory sequences in genes. 
A type of parasitic protozoan which can cause a number of serious diseases in people and domestic animals, including African sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticide, etc.


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